Just to let you know I'm having the same problem (I'm on Ubuntu 12.04, 32bits Intel)
I also tried upgrading to Git 22.214.171.124 (the Ubuntu package from the Git project) and even tried increasing the post buffer, but always got the same exception. I believe I was able to clone previous versions 0.8.0 and 0.8.1, but not anymore.
I found some suggestions to use something else than HTTPS, but it seems Codeplex doesn't support HTTP:// or GIT:// or GIT+SSH:// protocols.
BTW, I do use GitHub all the time, and there are no problems there. So there are scenario's where a HTTPS based clone is working on my system.
Some more info, my old fork goes fine:
git clone https://git01.codeplex.com/forks/jbaroncom/typescript
My new fork (made today) goes wrong:
git clone https://git01.codeplex.com/forks/jbaroncom/typescript2